Author: Jaive Smare
Could this change the music business model in PNG?
The Piracy problem in PNG leads CHM down new roads in music distribution and sales.
In recent years, Papua New Guinea’s number 1 music company, CHM, with the aid of the police, has conducted raids on counterfeit products all over PNG, confiscating burning towers and thousands of counterfeit music CDs.
No sooner can a studio release an album on to the market before songs are copied unlawfully onto cheap CD’s and resold by pirates for far less on the streets.
This means that the artist doesn’t not receive a fair amount of its royalties from sales of their music, the studio does not make it forecast sales and revenue figures and sometimes may not recoup the money it has put into production and promotion of the album.
It’s a situation that could stymie the progression and growth of the biggest media industry in Papua New Guinea as well in the South Pacific unless the Government and its enforcing bodies can step into to make piracy less lucrative or the music labels change their business models.
Unfortunately, protecting copyrights is not on the Governments priority list so the music labels and the artists are beginning to consider other models to protect their industry.
The New Deal
Recently CHM, the biggest recording label in the South Pacific, signed an agreement with the Australasian Performing Right Association and MGM Distribution to upload over 300,000 songs it has released over the last 30 years onto iTunes.
APRA collects and distributes license fees for public performance, enabling CHM to collect royalties from radio stations in Australia, as well as Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji and possibly other countries as well.
With the iTunes venture, it means that now these songs can be sold as singles for download on a world wide and very popular platform, the iTunes Store.
iTunes has over 600 million songs on its catalogue and is the worlds most popular online music store. In June 2003, it was announced that the store had sold more than 3 million songs in its first month of operation.
It continues to grow everyday.
Will this venture prove profitable for CHM and its artists?
Possibly. There are some great talents produced under the CHM label and its possible some may achieve fame and large sales of their singles on iTunes and royalties from APRA.
But it doesn’t mean that CHM or the artists can just sit on their backs and let the money roll in.
They would have to still work pretty hard, doing promotions, concerts and appearances as well as working on and writing new material.
Though iTunes has sold several million downloads, most of these sales are for established artists or emerging bands who already have established the infrastructure necessary to make it in the music business, such as large fan bases, many concerts, signing up with major labels etc.
The CHM model wont guarantee overnight success, but it will happen.
Also, physical sales of albums in stores will continue, but at least now there is another venue for the labels and artist to earn an income from, to counter the losses to piracy.
Disruptive Technology in Music
One of the prerequisites for business to survive in the music industry must be to ability to handle disruptive technology. This disruptive technology includes such things as the ability of people to copy and burn music, to share music on peer-to-peer networks or email it to each other.
Enforcement of copyright laws using police and State agencies does not seem to deter pirates, because obviously, piracy is low cost and lucrative and the State agencies are pretty lax about protecting the rights of artists.
In the music business, Music labels provide capital, knowledge and marketing skills to promote and distribute music. They already have well established distribution channels and know what works and what doesn’t. They also have the money to make it happen. An artist has more chance of success by signing up with label. The label releases the artist’s song, factoring all the costs involved in producing and promoting the album. The artists receive a certain amount of money for the album as well as money from royalties from sale.
In a perfect world without cheap and affordable piracy and peer to peer networks, a world that existed in the 1980s – 1990s and prior, the label would recoup what it had spent and make some money, the artists would get paid and then get rich (if they sold well) and everybody would be happy.
The problem with piracy is that it hijacks the final and most important part of this commercial process, the sales of the album.
Why buy a Lady Gaga album for $29.80 when you can buy for less than $5.00? or better still, you can get it for free on a Peer2Peer networks.
The artist doesn’t make any money; the record label doesn’t make any money. All that money they should make is instead going to the person burning duplicated copies of the CD.
This does not bode well for the music industry. In order for good music to be produced, artists need to be rewarded for their efforts. That’s why copyright laws exist. It protects their rights to earn a living from their efforts and also encourages more creativity.
Piracy does not encourage creativity; it does not build a culture that fosters creativity.
Unfortunately, it is here to stay.
So record labels such as CHM and artist must look at means of sustaining sales and making money.
And maybe revisit the reasons why people buy and share pirated music.
According to Apple CEO Steve Jobs and the people behind iTunes, the issue of piracy was a behavioral one. He said users were not offered viable opportunities to buy their favorite single at a reasonable price and a reasonable quality online.
So they created iTunes, where an artist single could be bought at great quality and reasonable price. You can buy whole albums for less than $10.00, or singles for $0.99cents.
How does iTunes Protect Against Piracy?
Apple, in order to get the deals necessary to fill its online store with music, has had to develop software that protects music available in its catalogue from being pirated.
This software is known as its digital rights management (DRM) system. The system according to Apple CEO Steve Jobs ‘envelopes each song purchased from the iTunes store in special and secret software so that it cannot be played on unauthorized devices.’
This system allows users to play their DRM protected music on up to 5 computers and on an unlimited number of iPods.
If the DRM protected music is put on the internet for free downloads or shared via emails etc, it shouldn’t be able to play on the computer where it was illegally downloaded or should not be able to play on the persons portable playing device.
In the event that the DRM system is compromised ( meaning someone has figured out a way to hack the DRM and make protected music not protected anymore) Apple has a set time to fix the problem or the record companies will withdraw their entire music catalog from the iTunes.
How this help CHM and artists signed by CHM?
For a music lover, say in a country like Australia, she could listen to a song from a PNG artist released by CHM on Queensland radio. If she likes the song she can just log on to the iTunes store and download the song and presto, its stored in her iPod or Mac for her enjoyment.
CHM and the artist receive royalties from APRA and royalties from iTunes.
At the same time, CHM does not have to worry so much about illegal copies of the program being copied because of Apples commitment to maintaining the success of its iTunes product through its DRM system and policies.
Digital music downloads is the World Wide global trend.
As iTunes success has shown, there are other ways to sell music with better protection against piracy.
As they learn more, we can only ask if CHM will usher in a new era of digital distribution that will not only spur the growth of the industry in PNG to greater heights, but also protect the business it has built over several decades, a business that has been sorely impacted by piracy.